Rocks of unusual shapes, known as Chinese Scholars' Rocks, often selected to portray the part of a mountain or mountain range in a garden scene, gradually became an essential feature of the Chinese garden. These generally had three parts; a kiosk with winged gables at the front, a more intimate hall in the center, and a two-story structure with a panoramic view of the pond at the rear. , Chinese architecture and aesthetics also influenced the English garden. At his palace near his capital, Xianyang, he created a garden with a large lake called Lanchi gong or the Lake of the Orchids. Rocks are chosen based on their shape, texture, substance, color and softness. Just about every Chinese garden contains architecture, like a building or pavilion; decorative rocks and a rock garden; plants, trees and flowers; and water elements, like ponds. The water reflects the sky, and therefore is constantly changing, but even a gentle wind can soften or erase the reflections. You was a royal garden where birds and animals were kept, while pu was a garden for plants. The Pavilion of Flowers is traditionally close to the residential home and is filled with flowers and plants. For example, some gardens purposely have a view of a mountain from one of its many scenes. The Qing dynasty was the last dynasty of China. It was designed to create a rainbow-shaped reflection in the pond. Under the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), a new imperial capital was built at Chang'an, and Emperor Wu built a new imperial garden, which combined the features of botanical and zoological gardens, as well as the traditional hunting grounds. , Painting and poetry reached a level never seen before, and new gardens, large and small, filled the capital city, Chang'an. The poet Zhou Dunyi wrote a famous elegy to the lotus, comparing it to a junzi, a man who possessed integrity and balance. He also used the park for theatrical events; he launched small boats on his stream with animated figures illustrating the history of China. They had thatch roofs (e.g. The Old Summer Palace, eight kilometers north of Beijing, was largely destroyed by an Anglo-French expedition in 1860.  Pear trees were the symbol of justice and wisdom. This visit to the garden resulted in a famous collection of poems, Jingu Shi, or Poems of the Golden Valley, and launched a long tradition of writing poetry in and about gardens. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. Zhu Yuanzhang ordered the Yuan palaces in Dadu to be burned down. ", The Chinese classical garden had a notable influence on the early Japanese garden. Mountain peaks symbolize virtue and stability. From the highest terrace, a view extended as far as Lake Tai, the Great Lake.. Stones – indicating stability and strength 3. Emperor Huizong (1082–1135) was an accomplished painter of birds and flowers. Sectioning off the garden makes the elements of the area stick out and appear even more vibrant. Alibaba.com offers 1,062 chinese garden architecture products. This was one of the first gardens that tried to create an idealized copy of nature. Gardens for poets and scholars (221–618 AD), Tang dynasty (618–907), First Golden Age of the Classical Garden. The landscape painter Shitao (1641–1720) wrote that he wanted to "'...create a landscape which was not spoiled by any vulgar banality..." He wanted to create a sense of vertigo in the viewer: "to express a universe inaccessible to man, without any route that led there, like the isles of Bohai, Penglan and Fanghu, where only the immortals can live, and which a man cannot imagine. Carvings of bamboo, pine, and plum, symbols of fortitude, integrity, and resilience, adorn the ceiling of the “Pavilion of the Three Friends” (San You Ge 三友閣) near a grove where all three of these plants grow. Small gardens have a single lake, with a rock garden, plants and structures around its edge. Aside from the canals, everywhere there are paths paved with small stones, which lead from one valley to the other. His reports had a profound influence on the development of Japanese landscape design. Of the flowers in the Chinese garden, the most appreciated were the orchid, peony, and lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). Architectural features both compose views and become an aspect of those views. Ceremony halls, located near the entrance of the garden, have their own courtyard and are used for family celebrations. , The Tang dynasty (618–907 AD) was considered the first golden age of the classical Chinese garden. An outstanding example of imperial gardens in classical Chinese style, the Summer Palace spreads on an area of 2.9 million square metres, three fourths of which are water surfaces. Chinese Buildings image from architects. Laborious Chinese struggling individuals produced numerous building wonders such as the Great Wall Surface, Forbidden City as well as the Mausoleum of the First … He heard the legend of the islands and sent emissaries to find the islands and bring back the elixir of immortal life, without success. For the past 3,000 years, everyone in China, from emperors and government officials to scholars and poets, have built their own Chinese garden. The Auspicious Cloud Capped Peak, a scholar stone in the Lingering Garden in Suzhou, Rock garden of the Mountain Villa with Embracing Beauty, Nine Lion Peak, from the Lion Grove Garden. Chinese gardens aren’t laid out in a way that you can see the entire garden all at once. I use information graphics to express the content of the work with more patterns and less words. After his death, the Qin Empire fell in 206 BC and his capital city and garden were completely destroyed, but the legend continued to inspire Chinese gardens. The scholar's garden participated in this quest; on the one hand the quest for the home of the Immortals, on the other hand the search for the world of the golden age so dear to the heart of the scholar. It was located on the side of a mountain, and included a series of terraces connected by galleries, along with a lake where boats in the form of blue dragons navigated. A famous royal garden of the late Shang dynasty was the Terrace, Pond and Park of the Spirit (Lingtai, Lingzhao Lingyou) built by King Wenwang west of his capital city, Yin. , Plum blossoms (Prunus mume) in the Plum Garden, Jiangsu, The lotus pond in Humble Administrator's Garden. The influence of China first reached Japan through Korea before 600 AD. Inspired by another version of Chinese classic about the Isles of the Immortals, called Liezi, he created a large artificial lake, the Lake of the Supreme Essence, with three artificial islands in the center representing the three isles of the Immortals. Taoism had a strong influence on the classical garden. The two most famous gardens, the Garden of the North (Beiyuan) and the Garden of the South (Nanyuan), both belonged to Shen Dehe, Grand Minister to Emperor Gaozong (1131–1162).  During the Ming dynasty, the use of piles of rocks to create artificial mountains and grottos reached its peak. The style became even more popular thanks to William Chambers (1723–1796), who lived in China from 1745 to 1747, and wrote a book, The Drawings, buildings, furniture, habits, machines and untensils of the Chinese, published in 1757. The chrysanthemum was elegized the poet Tao Yuanming, who surrounded his hermit's hut with the flower, and wrote a famous verse: "At the feet of the Eastern fence, I pick a chrysanthemum, The Russian Empress Catherine the Great built her own pagoda in the garden of her palace of Tsarskoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg, between 1778 and 1786. Hundreds of Japanese scholars were sent to study the Chinese language, political system, and culture. Both gardens became symbols of luxury and refinement, and were widely described by European visitors. 2 A terrace gave visitors a view of the lake and the mountains.. Discover over 248 of our best selection of Chinese Garden Architecture on AliExpress.com with top-selling Chinese Garden Architecture brands. A Chinese garden was not meant to be seen all at once; the plan of a classical Chinese garden presented the visitor with a series of perfectly composed and framed glimpses of scenery; a view of a pond, or of a rock, or a grove of bamboo, a blossoming tree, or a view of a distant mountain peak or a pagoda.  But the Jesuit priest Jean Denis Attiret, who lived in China from 1739 and was a court painter for the Qianlong Emperor, observed there was a "beautiful disorder, an anti-symmetry" in the Chinese garden. Some buildings have connected hallways and pavilions, each of which will have a view of a different area of the garden. ", A more recent view of the philosophy of the garden was expressed by Zhou Ganzhi, the President of the Chinese Society of Landscape Architecture, and Academician at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, in 2007: "Chinese classical gardens are a perfect integration of nature and work by man. In the Song dynasty, it consisted of a hilltop viewing pavilion. Streams come into the lake, forming additional scenes.  In 607 AD, the Japanese crown prince Shotoku sent a diplomatic mission to the Chinese court, which began a cultural exchange lasting for centuries. Patrick Carré, Le Jardin de Lettré, Musée Albert Kahn, Besançon, Éditions de l'imprimeur, 2004, pp. Some buildings have connected hallways and pavilions, each of which will have a view of a different area of the garden. A pond of water was usually located in the center. The bamboo, a hollow straw, represented a wise man, modest and seeking knowledge, and was also noted for being flexible in a storm without breaking. Even ordinary residences had tiny gardens in their courtyards, with terracotta mountains and small ponds. The Japanese Ambassador to China, Ono no Imoko, described the great landscape gardens of the Chinese Emperor to the Japanese court. The He Garden in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, (1880), a classic private residence garden of the Qing dynasty. During the Qing dynasty, the Ming rock gardens were considered too artificial and the new mountains were composed of both rocks and earth.. The streams in the Chinese garden always follow a winding course, and are hidden from time to time by rocks or vegetation.  The garden structures are not designed to dominate the landscape, but to be in harmony with it. Every Chinese garden has some type of rock element. These four elements manifest the opposing principles of yin (earth/receptive/dark) and yang (heaven/creative/bright). The willow tree represented the friendship and the pleasures of life. Other lakeside pavilions were added, including a reverence hall, a recitation hall, and a special pavilion for watching the fish. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Moon Comes with the Breeze Pavilion at the Couple's Retreat Garden, used for moon-viewing, has the inscription of a verse by Han Yu: And the Peony Hall in the Couple's Retreat Garden is dedicated to a verse by Li Bai: Wang Wei (701–761) was a poet, painter and Buddhist monk, who worked first as a court official before retiring to Lantian, where he built one of the first wenren yuan, or scholar's gardens, called the Valley of the Jante.  Many continental critics disliked the term English Garden, so they began to use the term 'Anglo-Chinois" to describe the style. Flowers and trees, along with water, rocks and architecture, are the fourth essential element of the Chinese garden. It was built during the reign of the Zhengde Emperor (1506–1521) by Wang Xianchen, a minor government administrator who retired from government service and devoted himself to his garden. The most famous example was the mist-shrouded view of the North Temple Pagoda in Suzhou, seen in the distance over the pond of the Humble Administrator's Garden. Comments / photos for the Dongguan Botanical Gardens page welcome. Its major attractions are the Wanshou (longevity) Hill and the Kunming (Jade Spring)Lake. Water – representing living, constantly changing nature 2. THE MASTER OF THE NETS GARDEN PROJECT. , A Japanese monk named Eisai (1141–1215) imported the Rinzai school of Zen Buddhism from China to Japan, which led to the creation of a famous and unique Japanese gardening style, the Zen garden, exemplified by the garden of Ryōan-ji. Some Chinese gardens have a lotus pond with a nearby lotus pavilion. Chen Congzhou and Jiang Qiting (Editors), Yuanzong, Shanghai, 2004, "You Jingyu yuan xu," p. 39. In 1738, the French Jesuit missionary and painter Jean Denis Attiret, went to China, where he became court painter to the Qianlong Emperor. For example, a scholar may have a library in their garden. Borrowing scenery is a most fundamental idea in Ming period garden making theory (see above). It includes both the vast gardens of the Chinese emperors and members of the imperial family, built for pleasure and to impress, and the more intimate gardens created by scholars, poets, former government officials, soldiers and merchants, made for reflection and escape from the outside world. He wrote a poem for each scene in the garden and commissioned a famous artist, to paint scenes of the garden on the walls of his villa. , These Chinese classical gardens, or scholar's gardens (wenren yuan), were inspired by, and in turn inspired, classical Chinese poetry and painting. Some elements that aren’t actually in the garden are part of the design as well. According to Ji Cheng's 16th century book Yuanye, "The Craft of Gardens," "borrowing scenery" (jiejing) was the most important thing of a garden. It was called the Chengde Mountain Resort, and it occupied 560 hectares, with seventy-two separate landscape views, recreating landscapes in miniature from many different parts of China. Wybe Kuitert (2015) Borrowing scenery and the landscape that lends - the final chapter of Yuanye, Quoted in Michel Baridon, Les Jardins. 2020 popular Chinese Garden Architecture trends in Home & Garden, Toys & Hobbies, Home Improvement with Chinese Garden Architecture and Chinese Garden Architecture. The artificial mountain in Chinese gardens today usually has a small view pavilion at the summit. His garden had an area of eight mu, or about 1.5 hectares. It is nature including the garden maker that creates. This story said that in Xi Wangmu's legendary orchard, peach trees flowered only after three thousand years, did not produce fruit for another three thousand years, and did not ripen for another three thousand years. He invited thirty famous poets to a banquet in his garden, and wrote about the event himself: I have a country house at the torrent of the Golden Valley...where there is a spring of pure water, a luxuriant woods, fruit trees, bambo, cypress, and medicinal plants. Trimming and root pruning, if done at all, tried to preserve the natural form. Retail Building Designs. These rocks, of limestone sculpted by erosion, became the most highly prized for gardens. Chinese gardens typically always have fragrant flowers to set the atmosphere. The garden of the floating cup (liubei tang), with small pavilions and artificial winding streams, became extremely popular in both imperial and private gardens. Some gardens have a picturesque stone pavilion in the form of a boat, located in the pond. They create an idealized miniature landscape, which is meant to express the harmony that should exist between man and nature.. Many gardens have a group of islands or a single island with an artificial mountain representing the island of the Eight Immortals..  The names of the Surging Waves Garden and the Garden of Meditation in Suzhou are taken from lines of Chinese poetry. ", Some early Western visitors to the imperial Chinese gardens felt they were chaotic, crowded with buildings in different styles, without any seeming order. The largest garden in Suzhou, the Humble Administrator's Garden, was a little over ten hectares in area, with one fifth of the garden occupied by the pond. , The first Jesuit priest, Francis Xavier, arrived in China in 1552, and the priest Matteo Ricci received permission to settle in Beijing in 1601. The Kangxi and Qianlong emperors of the Qing dynasty each visited the garden several times, and used it as model for their own summer garden, the Garden of Perfect Splendor, at the Chengde Mountain Resort.. Traditionally, Chinese gardens blend unique, ornate buildings with natural elements. , During the Nara period (710-794), when the Japanese capital was located at Nara, and later at Heian, the Japanese court created large landscape gardens with lakes and pavilions on the Chinese model for aristocrats to promenade and to drift leisurely in small boats, and more intimate gardens for contemplation and religious meditation. For thousands of years, its unique feature of wooden construction system has become the essence of Chinese classical architecture culture, which has spread to east Asian culture … The Garden of the Monastery of the Celestial Rulers in Luoyang was famous for its peonies; the entire city came when they were in bloom. It was built so the emperor could walk through the garden protected from the elements. Chinese Garden Architecture: A Collection Of Photographs Of Minor Chinese Buildings [Howard, Edwin L., Meeks, Everett V.] on Amazon.com. An ancient Chinese legend played an important part in early garden design. Plum trees were revered as the symbol of rebirth after the winter and the arrival of spring. Limestone rocks that have taken strange shapes due to erosion are among the most valued rocks for Chinese gardeners. Tong Jun, Records of Jiang Gardens, cited in Feng Chanoxiong. It was created in 1141 by Shi Zhengzhi, Deputy Civil Service Minister of the Southern Song government. Ji Cheng wrote. Guests were offered willow branches as a symbol of friendship.. Other Chinese gardens have temples, bridges, galleries and towers. Another Song dynasty garden still in existence is the Master of the Nets Garden in Suzhou. Intricate lattice and shaped doorways frame various scenes and generate anticipation as the garden is slowly revealed. Instead, small scenes are set up so that as you wander through the garden, you come upon several intimate settings to view. The main buildings are usually placed beside it, and pavilions surround the lake to see it from different points of view. This part will not only present you different kinds of beautiful gardens, but you will also be impressed at the unique constructional idea and methods of Chinese laboring people. , The social and cultural importance of the garden is illustrated in the classical novel Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin which unfolds almost exclusively in a garden. His observations on the Chinese garden were cited by the essayist Joseph Addison in an essay in 1712, who used them to attack the English gardeners who, instead of imitating nature, tried to make their gardens in the French style, as far from nature as possible.. Emperor Xuanzong built a magnificent imperial garden, the Garden of the Majestic Clear Lake, near Xi′an, and lived there with his famous concubine, Consort Yang. , Another existing garden from the Ming dynasty is the Lingering Garden, also in Suzhou, built during the reign of the Wanli Emperor (1573–1620). The most famous gardens in China during this period were the Summer Palace and the Old Summer Palace in Beijing. Some ponds have fish in them, like goldfish. A pond or lake is the central element of a Chinese garden. Chinese Architecture Designs – chronological list. Visitors moved from scene to scene either within enclosed galleries or by winding paths which concealed the scenes until the last moment. The garden usually has a pond for lotus flowers, with a special pavilion for viewing them. This style of 'dry garden' was later imported into Japan and transformed into the zen garden. The Garden of Multiple Springtimes was famous for its view of the mountains. De Chinese architectuur is de Aziatische architectuurstijl die zich door de eeuwen heen heeft ontwikkeld in China.De structurele beginselen van de Chinese architectuur zijn grotendeels onveranderd gebleven, de belangrijkste veranderingen hebben vooral op het vlak van de decoratieve details plaatsgevonden. A large pool, big enough for several small boats, was constructed on the palace grounds, with inner linings of polished oval shaped stones from the seashore. The park was later destroyed, but its memory would continue to inspire Chinese garden design for centuries. The park has an island, the Fragrant Isle, shaped like a boat. The history of Chinese garden architecture can be traced back to the Shang and Zhou dynasties (16th century BC - 221 BC). For example, Louis Le Comte, who visited China on a scientific expedition for King Louis XIV in 1685. 97–109. Chinese gardens are filled with architecture; halls, pavilions, temples, galleries, bridges, kiosks, and towers, occupying a large part of the space. The Summer Palace concentrates the beauty and essence of Chinese garden architecture and boasts a large collection of valuable cultural relics. Every scene is well-planned and framed. The 13.5-hectare garden is modelled on the northern Chinese imperial style of architecture during the Song dynasty (960–1279 CE) and the Summer Palace in Beijing. The influence of China first reached Japan through Korea before 600 AD. New World Press, 2007. His garden had a meandering stream for floating glasses of wine and pavilions for writing poetry. This could mean using scenes outside the garden, such as a view of distant mountains or the trees in the neighboring garden, to create the illusion that garden was much bigger than it was.  Hundreds of Japanese scholars were sent to study the Chinese language, political system, and culture. In the center of his garden he had constructed an artificial mountain a hundred meters high, with cliffs and ravines, which he named Genyue, or "The Mountain of Stability." A French Jesuit missionary, Father Attiret, who was a painter in the service of the Qianlong Emperor from 1738 to 1768, described one garden he saw: "The canals are not like those in our country bordered with finely cut stone, but very rustic and lined with pieces or rock, some coming forward, some retreating. The essential buildings of Chinese garden architectures include halls，pavilions，corridors and bridges, etc. The Garden of the South was a classic mountain-and-lake (shanshui) garden; it had a lake with an Island of Immortality (Penglai dao), on which were three great boulders from Taihu. A typical Chinese garden is enclosed by walls and includes one or more ponds, rock works, trees and flowers, and an assortment of halls and pavilions within the garden, connected by winding paths and zig-zag galleries. Everything is in good taste, and so well arranged, that there is not a single view from which all the beauty can be seen; you have to see it piece by piece. The views are deliberate, however, and the garden is usually arranged purposefully. Gardens of the Chengde Mountain Resort, the imperial villa in the mountains (1703–1792). Suzhou New District Commercial Plaza image from architects. The garden is built around a pond, with the Longevity Pavilion on the north side, the Fry Pavilion on the east side, a dramatic rock garden on the south, and the creator's study, the Humble House, to the west. Larger gardens will have a lake instead of a pond. Father Attiret, a French Jesuit who became court painter for the Qianlong Emperor from 1738 to 1768, described the Jade Terrace of the Isle of Immortality in the Lake of the Summer Palace: "That which is a true jewel is a rock or island...which is in the middle of this lake, on which is built a small palace, which contains one hundred rooms or salons...of a beauty and a taste which I am not able to express to you. Garden designers took into account the scenes of the garden that would look best in winter, summer, spring and autumn, and those best viewed at night, in the morning or afternoon. Each season has its own flowers. It could be used to find solitude and for contemplation. The types of buildings that are included in a Chinese garden have to do with whose garden it is. By 1279, he annihilated the last resistance of the Song dynasty and unified China under Mongol rule. There were two types of gardens: one where animals were kept and one for plants and gardening. Their construction and improvement consumed a large part of the imperial treasury. The last great garden of the Tang dynasty was the Hamlet of the Mountain of the Serene Spring (Pingquan Shanzhuang), built east of the city of Luoyang by Li Deyu, Grand Minister of the Tang Empire. Thanks to Chambers Chinese structures began to appear in other English gardens, then in France and elsewhere on the continent. Classical Chinese gardens were surrounded by a white wall. 8 Said to be the largest of its kind outside of China at the time, the striking architecture and vibrant colours of the Chinese Garden was intended to contrast with the tranquillity of the Japanese Garden. , After the fall of the Han dynasty, a long period of political instability began in China. , While the imperial gardens were the best known, many smaller but equally picturesque gardens were built in cities such as Luoyang. , According to the landscape historian and architect Che Bing Chiu, every garden was "a quest for paradise. One example was the Jingu Yuan, or Garden of the Golden Valley, built in 296 by Shi Chong (249–300 AD), an aristocrat and former court official, ten kilometers northeast of Luoyang. These views are often unexpected, because most people don’t think to look outside the garden walls when in a Chinese garden. The larger the garden, the more buildings it will contain. Some of these gardens still exist today, though most been much altered over the centuries. The Garden of the South was a water garden, with five large lakes connected to Lake Tai. Some gardens created the impression of lakes by places smooth areas of white sand, bordered by rocks, in courtyards. The canals are not at all like ours- bordered with cut stone- they are rustic, with pieces of rock, some leaning forward, some backwards, placed with such art you would think they were natural. These patterned paths are not designed by architects, but made by artisans from beginning to end. He described how the Chinese gardens had grottos, artificial hills and rocks piled to imitate nature, and did not arrange their gardens geometrically. During this period, many former government officials left the court and built gardens where they could escape the outside world and concentrate on nature and literature. In the garden described by Ji Cheng above, the structures occupied two-thirds of the hectare, while the garden itself occupied the other third. He also brought green tea from China to Japan, originally to keep monks awake during long meditation, giving the basis for the Japanese tea ceremony, which became an important ritual in Japanese gardens. The winding paths and zig-zag galleries bridges that led visitors from one garden scene to another also had a message. Empress Dowager Cixi famously diverted money intended for the modernization of the Beiyang Fleet and used it to restore the Summer Palace and the marble teahouse in the shape of boat on Lake Kunming. The spirit rejoices at the mountains and ravines. , Gardens also often include small, austere houses for solitude and meditation, sometimes in the form of rustic fishing huts, and isolated buildings which serve as libraries or studios (shufang). In China, water symbolizes communication and dreams. The lake or pond has an important symbolic role in the garden. Lettres édifiantes et curieuses écrites des Missions étrangères par quelques missionaires de la Compagne de Jésus," Paris, Fr. For scholars, the pine was the emblem of longevity and tenacity, as well as constance in friendship. Other Chinese gardens have temples, bridges, galleries and towers. wutopia lab has completed ‘the hiding house’ in shanghai with a micro chinese garden formed by black volcanic rock, taihu stones, wisteria and bauhinia trees. The earliest recorded Chinese gardens were created in the valley of the Yellow River, during the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC). In this garden, a series of twenty scenes, like the paintings of a scroll or album, unrolled before the viewer, each illustrated by a verse of poetry. Any passer-by could visit the garden by paying a small fee.. There were shanchi yuan, gardens with artificial mountains and ponds, inspired by the legend of the isles of immortals, and shanting yuan, gardens with replicas of mountains and small viewing houses, or pavilions. The first Chinese gardens were built in the Yellow River valley. , There were two periods of the Song dynasty, northern and southern, and both were known for the construction of famous gardens. Along with European and also Arabian style, old Chinese style is an essential element of the globe building system. The poet Bo Juyi (772–846) wrote a catalog of the famous rocks of Lake Tai, called Taihu Shiji. Including a miniature mountain in the Chinese garden isn’t just for esthetic appeal. The ever-changing moods and appearances of nature in a given landscape in full action are understood by the author as an independent function that becomes an agent for garden making. Ji Cheng wrote: "In the heart of the tumult of the city, you should choose visions that are serene and refined: from a raised clearing, you look to the distant horizon, surrounded by mountains like a screen; in an open pavilion, a gentle and light breeze invades the room; from the front door, the running water of spring flows toward the marsh.
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